Friday, August 1, 2008

Banning of Marijuana

Now smokers don’t have a place to smoke, because smoking has caused humans and environments lots of harmful effects. Even more so of marijuana; there is no doubt of its illegalization. “There are many people who do not want the legalization of marijuana. They point to the drawbacks that marijuana has. There are the concerns that legalization can make marijuana more available for abuse, especially by children” (Roth, 2008, para.12). Thus, marijuana doesn’t help anything to humans and it should be banned from our society.

I will argue in this paper that marijuana causes bad influence to humans and societies. People should be concerned about direct and indirect problems of marijuana.

Marijuana has harmful effects directly. First, people who use marijuana regularly suffer the results of getting the illness like smoking problems. The nicotine of marijuana causes lots of health damage. For example, the leaders of medicine say that cigarette or marijuana smokers can get respiratory problems, lung or liver cancer, difficulty breathing, heart problems, and pregnancy disease (Institute of Medicine, 2000). Second, moreover, marijuana might expose children and youths to dangerous situations. Usually young people cannot refuse easily the kind of temptation of marijuana. If children and youths can be addicted to marijuana, they will fail their whole lives. For example, “Those who use cannabis at an early age at greater risk of hard drug use later in life. The researchers emphasize that the prevention of cannabis use by adolescents is a key to effective prevention of hard drug use later in life” (VU University Amsterdam, n. d. para. 1). Therefore, marijuana causes damage to human’s physical and psychological health; people should prohibit use of marijuana.

Marijuana has harmful effects indirectly. First, people who are addicted to marihuana can connect with crimes, because marijuana gives humans indistinct judgment. For example, areas of legal marijuana like Amsterdam have increased crimes and strongly addicted people (Roth, 2008). Second, marijuana depletes the immune system of the human body, which causes illness to transfer from person to person, or bring about other new diseases. For example, “Smoking marijuana regularly can damage the cells in the bronchial passages which protect the body against inhaled microorganisms and decrease the ability of the immune cells in the lungs to fight off fungi, bacteria, and tumor cells. For patients with already weakened immune systems, this means an increase in the possibility of dangerous pulmonary infections, including pneumonia, which often proves fatal in AIDS patients” (Tashkin, n. d. para. 5). Therefore, marijuana brings lots of disasters; people should forbid legalization of marijuana.

In conclusion, marijuana exerts lots of bad infections to users and their societies. People can get direct nicotine diseases and addictions. Also, every person can be affected indirectly by crime or infectious disease. Therefore, people should ban marijuana and make asound and stable society.


Institute of Medicine. (2000). Marijuana as Medicine? The science behind the controversy. The National Academies Press. Retrieved on July 29, 2008, from

Roth, R. (2008, Jan. 17). Medical Marijuana. Retrieved on July 29, 2008, from

Tashkin, D. (n. d.). The medical dangers of marijuana use. Cyber Law, Harvard. Retrieved on July 29, 2008, from

VU University Amsterdam (n. d.). Stay away from cannabis. Retrieved on July 29, 2008, from

Wednesday, July 30, 2008

Practical use of Hydrogen energy

When I pass an oil station, my feeling is nervous and worried because oil prices are getting higher day by day. Now I am one of the people complaining about soaring oil prices. Also, oil energy discharges lots of emissions while we are driving; its pollutants give harmful effects to environment and humans. In modern times nobody can live without vehicles. So most people want clean and cheap energy for their vehicles instead of higher prices of oil. Thus I introduce hydrogen energy with alternative energy. Hydrogen is the lightest chemical element and offers the best energy. Also, hydrogen is colorless and odorless, and its only byproduct is water. So several countries and auto companies are dealing with the hydrogen alternative energy. “Hydrogen can be produced, with varying degrees of efficiency, from multiple sources, almost anywhere. Consequently, the security-of-supply issue that plagues the world’s fossil-fuel resources could be all but overcome by the adoption of a hydrogen economy” (Malloy, 2007, para. 4-5). Now leaders of this field are striving with how to use hydrogen energy as soon as possible. If hydrogen energy becomes cheaper in price and easier to get than oil energy, everyone will want to change their main energy to hydrogen. “In dozens of laboratories and research centers, scientists and engineers are busy searching for ways to reduce the cost and improve the practicality of hydrogen –powered vehicles” (Sherman, 2007, para. 3). I insist that the hydrogen energy is the best way to escape a global crisis of oil energy and to turn toward a green environmental future.

In this paper, I plan to argue about how to promote the practical use of hydrogen energy for vehicles. First, more developed countries should give guidance on infrastructure for using hydrogen to developing countries from their countries. Second, the bigger auto companies should create a method for larger sales of hydrogen vehicles. Finally, people on the earth should remind themselves that the hydrogen alternative energy is very important for human beings.

First, developed countries should lead developing countries to using hydrogen as an alternative energy for vehicles. Now, the biggest problem is lack of infrastructure such as hydrogen stations. If people could easily get hydrogen while driving, they wouldn’t worry about the practical use of hydrogen. For example, now some countries have hydrogen stations, for example, Iceland, United States, Canada and Japan. “In Iceland, a hydrogen filling station near Reykjavik creates and stores the hydrogen on-site in pressurized tanks for use in fuel cell-powered buses. The United States is rich in unexploited geothermal resources, primarily in the West. Tapping that energy to create hydrogen fuel is one path to making enough hydrogen commercially available for emerging vehicle fleets” (Moran, 2006, para.22). Thus, these countries should show the good infrastructure to others. Also, the countries using hydrogen should establish policies that help development of the practical use of hydrogen to their nation’s people. If people can speed during a traffic jam, they will want to drive on a hydrogen highway. For example, “Remember the ‘hydrogen highway?’ This was California Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger’s vision back in 2004. He proclaimed that, by 2010, California highways would be lined with hydrogen fueling stations, some 20 miles apart throughout the state, enabling hydrogen-powered cars and buses to travel freely. He signed an executive order setting up a private and public partnership to implement that vision” (Perry, 2008, para.1). In addition, governments using hydrogen vehicles around the country should change official vehicles to hydrogen vehicles. For example, Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger ordered a hydrogen car and used it for himself. In this way, the developed countries might guide other countries; the developing countries should take a good example and consider the practical use of hydrogen vehicles.

Second, bigger auto companies should promote revitalization of the hydrogen vehicles. The bigger auto companies of the world are faced with the cost of the commercialization of hydrogen fuel cells. The cost is still a problem; now several companies are dealing with the intermediation process to make hydrogen fuel cells from oil fuel. For example, “BMW, Ford, and Mazda have all developed conventional internal combustion (IC) engines that operate on H2 and all three are in the process of putting hydrogen-powered vehicles into real-world service in demonstration fleets around the world” (Malloy, 2007, para.8). These productions might provide available hydrogen vehicles earlier. Also, auto companies should give an experience driving hydrogen vehicles to applicants. If someone is curious he or she probably wants to get driving experience with the new technology vehicles. For example, “It didn’t take long to realize that GM was actually using this ‘forum’ to find drivers who would understand and appreciate the technology, and give meaningful feedback to the project. They were also looking for early adopters-those of us willing to accept the bugs and annoyances common in new technology rather than be overly sensitive to them” (Krach, 2008, para.4). In addition, the auto companies consider the high price of hydrogen vehicles at first; they might take financing ideas of hydrogen vehicles. For example, if the auto companies sell hydrogen vehicles on easy installment plans, the common people can easily access them. Therefore, the bigger companies should create their methods for hydrogen vehicles’ popularization.

Third, the most important connection is that people should be aware of the world situation. Oil prices are getting more and more steep, and the oil resources are decreasing in quantity in oil-producing countries. For example, “Goldman Sachs predicted last week that the price could rise to an unprecedented $200 a barrel over the next year, and the world is coming to terms with the idea that the age of cheap oil has ended, with far-reaching repercussions on their activities” (Lean, 2008, para.5). Thus people on the earth should be concerned about the critical state and will try to use hydrogen vehicles. Also, now if someone wants to use hydrogen energy, they can get hydrogen energy the easy way at their home. If people get a regular amount of hydrogen fuel for their vehicle every morning, it will be an undreamed of reality of life. For example, a company in London invented and introduced hydrogen manufacture at individual home. “The hydrogen generator, which when it goes on sale will be small enough to fit in a garage or homes, will use water and off peak electricity to generate the gas” (Daily Mail, 2008, para.2). In addition, people should pay attention that hydrogen energy is clean energy. For example, a vehicle using hydrogen gets its fuel with the electrolysis method, which splits hydrogen from water. Its result would be emission-free. Therefore, individual people, everyone should contribute to effective energy for a better future.

My opponents argue that practical use of hydrogen energy for vehicles is an impossible problem. Current infrastructures focus on oil fuel energy; people must learn how to change its giant systems with hydrogen infrastructures. “McMahon’s book outlines the many options available to us immediately -electric vehicles, hybrid vehicles and human-powered vehicles- because even though it is possible to make hydrogen fuel-cell vehicles or even a hydrogen fuel –cell electric vehicle, creating the supporting infrastructure will take decades” (Mannion, 2007, para.9). However, now oil energy is soaring and increasing serious air pollution. The numerous motor vehicles are responsible for most air pollution like smog and acid rain. For example, a lot of motor vehicles in Los Angeles, Denver, Salt Lake City, Sydney, Mexico City, and Buenos Aires all have caused serious photochemical smog problem (Miller, Jr., 1994). Also, this air pollution causes damage to people and living organisms. The developed countries, especially Iceland and the United States, think that hydrogen energy is the most possible alternative energy. Thus the developed countries have supported and studied in this field. Already oil refining companies and auto companies lead practical use for hydrogen energy for vehicles in the United States, Japan, and Europe. For example, Shell and BP made a ‘California Fuel Cell Partnership’ where they study and advance hydrogen energy for vehicles and practical use in California. “The California Fuel Cell Partnership is a collaboration of 31 members working together to promote the commercialization of hydrogen fuel cell vehicles. Today, our members are operating more fuel cell vehicles and hydrogen fueling stations in California than any other region in the world” (California fuel cell partnership, 2007, paras.1-2). Therefore, established infrastructures of oil fuel energy can renew the hydrogen fuel energy, which is an abundant resource, so people can use enough amounts with fuel energy for their vehicles anywhere.

In conclusion, the hydrogen energy is a gift for people, because hydrogen is clean, plentiful enough, and cheap energy as it is used in vehicles. The world should use hydrogen energy for vehicles as soon as possible. The countries should establish rational and strong policies that make oil energy go toward extinction. Also, the auto companies should induce drivers into hydrogen vehicles. In addition, the people should recognize the energy problem and try to lead others to fuel energy for vehicles. Hydrogen is not widely used today, but it has great potential as an energy carrier in the future. The world should change hydrogen fuel vehicles from oil energy; if they do, their attempt can overcome energy crisis problems. Now people should try to be sure that hydrogen vehicles are starting to move from the imagination to the roads.

Bettencourt, M. (2006, November 16). BMW’s hydrogen-powered ride to a green utopia. The Globe and Mail (Canada). Retrieved on July 7, 2008, from Lexis Nexis database.

California fuel cell partnership. (2007). Commercialization of fuel cell vehicles. Retrieved on July 19, 2008, from:

Daily Mail. (2008, July 16). Fill up your car… at your home hydrogen fuel station. Retrieved on July 19, 2008, from:

Krach, D. (2008, May 29). Why GM let me drive its new hydrogen car: Citizen fuel cell. Popular Mechanics. Retrieved on July 19, 2008, from:

Lean, G. (2008, May 25). Oil: A global crisis. Retrieved on July 1, 2008, from:

Malloy, G. (2007, April 21). Cost, infrastructure hinder hydrogen; But several big auto makers see the gas as a solid long-term bet. The Toronto Star. Retrieved on July 7, 2008, from Lexis Nexis database.

Mannion, S. L. (2007, January 8). Hydrogen: A lot of hot air? The Gazette (Montreal). Retrieved on July 7, 2008, from Lexis Nexis database.

Miller, Jr., G.T. (1994). Environment: Problems and solutions. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.

Moran, T. (2006, November 20). Fuel for the future; Iceland has vast resources to produce hydrogen. Automotive News. Retrieved on July 7, 2008, from Lexis Nexis database.

Perry, T. (2008, January 22). Road blocks on the hydrogen highway. Spectrum online. Retrieved on July 19, 2008, from:

Sherman, D. (2007, April 29). Hydrogen’s second coming. The New York Times. Retrieved on July 7, 2008, from Lexis Nexis database.

Monday, July 14, 2008

Fuel for the future; Hydrogen

In “BMW’s hydrogen-powered ride to a green utopia,” the author introduces the fact that BMW is putting out the hydrogen fuel vehicles that show the vision of hydrogen fuel vehicles for a better future. People already recognize problems about using oil fuel for example; exhaustion of natural resource, air pollution, ozone depletion, and lack of fuel energy. So several countries and auto companies are dealing with alternative energy like hydrogen for vehicles. The author points out that hydrogen fuel vehicles still have a problem about running distance, because not every country has enough available stations for hydrogen fuel. However, hydrogen vehicles have a large benefit such as no pollution, abundant amount, and ease of use. The author includes the idea that stable infrastructure of hydrogen energy might be increasing advantage in our social future.

The article shows advanced vehicles with hydrogen fuel, which is good news to drivers. I enjoyed this article, and agree that hydrogen energy is good instead of oil energy. Also, I insist on the profits of hydrogen energy, which are that hydrogen energy is green energy, that it is enough energy, and that it can be changed into cheap energy.

The hydrogen is a clean power source. A vehicle using hydrogen, gets its fuel with the electrolysis method, which splits hydrogen from water. Its result would be emission-free. In fact, the only byproduct is water while the vehicles are using hydrogen with the electrolysis process. On the other hand, hydrogen is extracted from biomass by the steam reforming method. Its result would be a few greenhouse gas emissions that are linked with global warming. However, even if the steam reforming method causes some global warming, it is less harmful than burning oil. For example, burning oil during the drive makes carbon dioxide emissions; this is a primary factor in global warming. Therefore, hydrogen is green energy, it should be used to make an environmental utopia.

Hydrogen is a plentiful energy. Usually hydrogen is combined with oxygen; it is water with H2O form. For example, water is plentiful enough renewable resource in earth. If some other resources must be depleted, such as gasoline, natural gas, ethanol, or coal, water can be kept by natural environmental circulation. Also, the earth’s crust contains the element hydrogen, and all growing things include hydrogen with biomass. For example, restricted regional oil energy is insignificant compared to geothermal energy. Therefore, hydrogen is found not only in water but also on land. This is an abundant resource so people can use enough amounts with fuel energy for their vehicles anywhere.

The hydrogen will be changed economical energy. Since hydrogen energy is going to become zero-emission, people who use hydrogen energy for their vehicles don’t require environmental tax about pollution. For example, recently lots of countries include emission tax for environment when merchants sell oil at a station. Also, when each country provides stable infrastructure for hydrogen vehicles, hydrogen energy will be cheaper than now. For example, GMW’s Hydrogen 7 has two fuel tanks, one for hydrogen and one for regular gasoline, because often we are not near a hydrogen fuelling station (Bettencourt, 2006). It causes expensive prices of hydrogen energy and vehicles. Therefore, hydrogen is potential energy, which should contribute to effective energy to for a better future.

In conclusion, the hydrogen energy is gift for people, because hydrogen is clean, plentiful enough, and cheap energy as it is used in vehicles. Hydrogen is not widely used today but it has great potential as an energy carrier in the future. People should change hydrogen fuel vehicles from oil energy; if they do, their try can overcome energy crisis problems.


Bettencourt, M. (2006, November 16). BMW’s hydrogen-powered ride to a green utopia. The Global and Mail (Canada).
Retrieved on July 7, 2008, from Lexis Nexis database.

Wednesday, July 9, 2008

Need of Alternative Energy

In “Fuel for the future; Iceland has vast resources to produce hydrogen,” the author insists that hydrogen energy is better energy instead of oil energy for vehicles, and explains methods of how to use the hydrogen energy from the resources. Recently GM company has setout to prove the advantages of hydrogen vehicles over oil cars. The author points out that Iceland has plentiful resources for using hydrogen energy; for example, Iceland’s crust and underground water have lots of hydrogen resources. In addition, the conversion process of hydrogen is easier and safer than that of other sources; also, hydrogen can give enough amounts for demand of traffic and clean environment for people. In conclusion, hydrogen is very useful and abundant energy compared to others. Especially, Iceland and the U.S. should generate hydrogen energy more and more for vehicles.

I could learn that hydrogen energy is one of the important kinds of energy among alternative energies after reading this article. In the contemporary world we should change primary energy into alternative energy. I will argue that there are reasons that alternative energy is important now. The reasons are rising oil prices, preventing pollution, and requiring energy for larger traffic.

First, global people are facing a critical situation about higher oil prices. Now the Iraq war has caused a steeper cost of oil than before the war. For example, the Iraq government has dropped pump amounts of oil after the Iraq war. Also, the oil resources will ultimately run dry in the near future. For example, even though now Middle East countries have enough oil, these countries cannot have oil resources forever, because natural gasoline is nonrenewable energy. Therefore, everyone knows that people should prepare alternative energy, which is less expensive than oil, from the shortage of oil energy.

Second, burning of fossil fuels cause a number of harmful effects in the earth. The numerous motor vehicles are responsible for most air pollution like smog and acid rain. For example, lots of motor vehicles in Los Angeles, Denver, Salt Lake City, Sydney, Mexico City, and Buenos Aires all have caused serious photochemical smog problems (Miller, Jr., 1994). Also, this air pollution causes damage to people and living organizations. For example, people or living things who regularly breathe in air pollution, can get several illnesses such as dizziness, headaches, lung cancers, and respiratory illnesses. Therefore, using gasoline has lots of harmful consequences, so people need clean air from alternative energy.

Finally, the advancing world requires energy for a huge number of vehicles. Developing countries increase transportation for their needs. For example, even if people’s own cars were luxuries substance a few years ago, now most people want their own cars. Also, older people populations grow larger in developed countries so they want steady supply of vehicles for their convenience. For example, older people in more developed countries want travel and comfortable movement after retirement. Therefore, people living in the world demand vast amounts of energy for their traffic, so people should create alternative energy which is easy to get and has enough yield.

In conclusion, in modern times nobody can live without vehicles. So people should create alternative energy because of expensive oil prices, environmental qualities, and increasing demands. The alternative energy can allow people not to suffer from lack of oil, dirty air, or bad health. Now people should try to be sure that alternative vehicles are starting to move from the laboratories to the roads.


Moran, T. (2006, November 20). Fuel for the future; Iceland has vast resources to produce hydrogen. Automotive News. Retrieved on July 7, 2008, from Lexis Nexis database.

Miller, Jr., G.T. (1994). Environment: Problems and solutions. Belmont, CA:Wadsworth.

Monday, July 7, 2008

The Oil Shock

In “Oil: A global crisis,” Lean strongly says that global people are facing a critical situation about higher oil prices. Recently oil prices have risen steeply because of the Iraq war. He presents several reasons for rising oil prices after the Iraq war; for example, the Iraq government has dropped the flow of oil’s yield since the Iraq war. In addition, developing countries need increasing amounts of oil for their industrial development, like China. The author shows several prospects about oil prices in the future, and the most expected prospect is that the oil prices will rise successively until it is $200 a barrel by 2012.

This article gives information to me about the worry of higher oil prices. Now I am one of the concerned people about soaring oil prices. I will argue that there are reasons that oil prices have been rising recently. The reasons are change of world situation, economic demand, and energy exhaustion.

First, unstable international situations affect oil prices in the contemporary world. The U.S. and Britain caused the Iraq war, and it has brought about higher cost of oil. For example, this article says that Hussein’s regime pumped 3.5 million barrels of oil a day, but this has now fallen to just two million barrels (Lean, 2008, Para. 7). Also, the dollar’s value has fallen in the globe so the price of oil in dollars has gotten higher. For example, the Euro has higher value than the dollar over the last several years. It impacts indirectly on higher oil prices. Therefore, now the dangerous Iraq war and the weak dollar has sped the soaring oil prices.

Second, economic demand extends about energy. Every industrial area and personal life requires oil. So people want convenience and development; it requires lots of oil to operate transportation or factories. For example, developing countries have increased demand of oil in place such as China and Asian countries. Also, when people get the oil, the sale price is not the real oil price. This price includes taxes, refining, marketing and distribution along with pump price of oil. For example, we know that different states show different prices in the US. The highest prices of oil are usually in Hawaii, because it depends on a unique state law of oil. Therefore, increasing economic requirements and additional charges for oil make higher prices continue.

Finally, oil resources are decreasing in quantity in oil-producing countries. Oil resources are nonrenewable energy, so people won’t get the oil forever. For example, even though now a country is one of the world’s biggest producing countries, that country may have to reserve for its own needs. Also, the countries having oil resources are lucky compared to countries that need oil. For example, usually Middle East countries have enough oil, but larger numbers of countries didn’t have their own oil, like developing countries. Therefore, oil is fixed energy; people cannot create the oil, thus its extreme situation adds to soaring oil prices.

In conclusion, people are coping with higher oil prices now. These are serious problems of costly oil that are internationally at uncomfortable stages, due to increasing demands from economy, and depletion of oil resource. Now people strive for escaping this global crisis; thus, people need another kind of energy instead of oil. Therefore, people should use less oil and should study alternative fuels for the better future.


Lean, G. (2008, May 25). Oil: A global crisis. Retrieved on July 1, 2008, from:

Friday, June 20, 2008

Captive Breeding for Amphibian Survival

Our children go to a creek or lake, expecting small frogs to hop on its shore, but they will not see them, sooner or later. What happened to this place? The leaders in amphibians analyzed the fact that amphibians have diminished in their population and lots of other species have vanished. Most ecologists have given warning to people that amphibians will disappear. Zippel was quoted as saying, “Amphibians have been around for over 360 million years, enduring at least three mass extinction events, including the one that eliminated the dinosaurs. But amphibians species are becoming extinct at a pace faster than anything we have experienced” (Beeby, 2008, para. 9). I argue that captive breeding is the best way to save amphibians in difficult circumstances. I am sympathetic to Sir David’s argument that “Captive breeding had been shown to be one of the most important and appropriate ways to slow down the effects of the crisis” (McMarthy, 2008, para. 7). Therefore, amphibian scientists should continue to study the protecting method of the endangered amphibians.

In this paper, I argue about how to sustain amphibians’ captive breeding. People should defend the habits of amphibians from bad effects of global warming, and scientists should research methods that solve the problems of fungus diseases. In addition, governments should raise and invest the funds to establish their captive breeding facilities.

First, people should be concerned about protecting the amphibians' habitats from harmful impacts of global warming. Global warming affects amphibians by drying the water in the amphibians’ habitats. “Do we water ecosystems in response to the drying conditions that will accompany climate warming in many regions of the world?” (Knapp, 2008c, para. 1). For example, scientists choose deliberately a natural habitat for captive breeding, because the habitat must reserve proper water for living, which makes bred amphibians keep growing safely. Also, global warming reduces water supplies. The textbook said that global warming causes the high temperature, and the water that is in water supplies decreases or dries up (Miller, Jr., 1994). For example, tadpoles generally eat the green algae like chlorella and sea lettuce. If tadpoles don’t take the nutrition, it means that the growing processes will fail during amphibians’ captive breeding. In addition, when water becomes warm, this causes infectious diseases. For example, the scientists argue that “Warming temperatures had allowed the emergence of chytridiomycosis, a disease caused by the amphibian chytrid fungus that has been wiping out amphibians species around the world. Despite providing only weak support for the role of climate change, the paper was splashed across the pages of hundreds of newspapers and magazines, all repeating the mantra that climate change was now a proven cause of amphibian declines” (Knapp, 2008b, para. 1). Therefore, people should prevent and slow down the bad effects of global warming. I agree with Miller, Jr. (1994), who says that people should not buy products containing CFCs and halon fire extinguishers for home use. Also, people should have car and home air conditioners checked regularly for CFC leaks, repair them, and use energy-efficient light bulbs, refrigerators, and other appliances (Miller, Jr., 1994). Their effects prevent not only global warming but also loss of amphibians’ habitats.

Second, scientists should be encouraged and supported. Thus, the scientists advance to invent medicine that prevents fungus diseases and cures amphibians of them. Amphibian populations might disappear very quickly because of fungus diseses; for example, “Scientists aren’t exactly sure how the fungus, Batrachytrium dendrobatidis, kills, but it seems to break down a protein in the skin called keratin that may be important for respiration. The skin of infected animals sloughs off in layers, and within two weeks they die” (Goodman, 2006, para. 5). If a few amphibians get the fungus diseases, they spread all over the water-areas where amphibians live. Also, when amphibians move to other areas, they require safe conveyance from fungus diseases. For example, commercial trade of wildlife may increase the fungus disease because of changing shelters. In addition, in order to the advancement of learning for captive breeding, the scientists might solve serious fungus diseases promptly. “There was no time to do the meticulous studies of behavior, reproduction, eating habits and habitat that zoologists try to conduct before moving any endangered species from its natural environment” (Goodman, 2006, para. 13). Therefore, scientists should conduct the research for stable captive breeding and discover healing medical methods, which will lead to successful captive breeding.

Third, governments should support the ecologists and research centers for captive breeding. Captive breeding demands ecologists’ personnel. For example, frog researchers act carefully to observe, discover, and carry frog’s eggs to a captive breeding research center from their habitats. The frog researcher Hunter’s case shows that “Even a local council environment officer earns about $50,000 –more than double the income of many of the PHD students like Hunter, who are delivering critical information on preserving Australia’s biodiversity” (The Canberra Times, 2008, para. 1). Also, governments should institute a new rule to support the researchers or the research centers to make their fund-raising campaigns easy and effective. Captive breeding keeps progress toward the amphibian’s sustainable existence. For example, everyone participates in the program like this; “Anyone could help the global program raise funds for frog conservation, including ‘kids selling cookies’ at school fund- raisers” (Beeby, 2008, para. 10). In addition, government should establish a greenbelt zone for stage of captive breeding. When scientists choose a deliberate natural habitat and reserve the habitat, this habitat demands sensitive attention. For example, habitat can be affected by pollination in agriculture or urbanization. Therefore, governments should instruct their people for keeping the environments for amphibians’ breeding and should support either hard-working researchers or captive breeding centers.

My opponents argue that captive breeding is very expensive. “The estimated 5-year cost to house 100 amphibians species in zoos is $41,000,000! Where is this money going to come from? Will it be siphoned away from already scarce funds used for conservation efforts currently being implemented in the wild?” (Knapp, 2008a, para. 2). However, the amphibians are special vertebrates because they maintain a double life on land in water. Also, amphibians have a long history in spite of their weak disposition and bare skin. In addition, “Amphibians play a major role in many ecosystems, in some places the amphibian biomass is greater than that of all the other vertebrates” (Oregon State University, 2006, para. 3). The amphibians reduce the harm of insects for humans and play a role in the ecosystem for other animals in the food chain. Finally, the amphibians affect agriculture; for example, farmers might be achieving a higher rate of their harvest because of amphibians. Increasing amphibians can allow them to anticipate a rich year. Therefore, amphibians demonstrate the original history of the ecosystem, and they give benefits to other animals and people. Amphibians must deserve to exist on earth.

In conclusion, captive breeding poses problems in its processes. The developing of captive breeding requires conservation of amphibians’ habitats from global warming problems, prevention of disaster from fungus disease, and full support of governments. Not only individual people but also global countries must lead the appropriate projects and practical new environmental laws, to keep the amphibians. Captive breeding is the only method to rescue the endangered amphibians from their current critical situation. Also, successful captive breeding will enable us to educate to children how to preserve the endangered species. It is true that captive breeding requires lots of time, money, and devotion. By having children observe the hard process, they will be able to realize how hard it is to protect and balance the environment. Thus, through this hard method, captive breeding can give people sound mind and keep settled the ecosystem. Therefore, people should consider the problems of captive breeding and keep paying attention to captive breeding.


Atkinson, C. (2007, October 3). Recovery team brings spotted frog back from brink of extinction. British Columbia News. Retrieved May 27, 2008 from Lexis Nexis database.

Beeby, R. (2008, January 2). International effort to save critically endangered frog species. Canberra Times. Retrieved June 3, 2008, from Lexis Nexis database.

Goodman, B. (2006, June 6). To stem widespread extinction, scientists airlift frogs in carry on bags. The New York Times. Retrieved June 3, 2008, from Lexis Nexis database.

The hard slog to save the frogs. (2005, May 9). The Canberra Times. The environment. Retrieved May 27, 2008 from Lexis Nexis database.

Jenkin, C. (2007, August 8). One degree change the planet’s future; Part 3 earth’s challenges; The struggle to save what’s left. The Advertiser/Sunday Mail. Retrieved June 3, 2008, from Lexis Nexis database.

Knapp, R. (2008a, May 23). The amphibian ark: good intentions, uncertain outcomes. Frog Blog. Retrieved June 11, 2008, from

Knapp, R. (2008b, March 27). Climate change and global amphibian declines. Frog Blog. Retrieved June 11, 2008, from

Knapp, R. (2008c, February 28). Conservation in an age of climate change. Frog Blog. Retrieved June 11, 2008, from

McCarthy, M. (2008, January 3). Frog numbers in peril from spread of killer fungus. The Independent Newspaper. Retrieved June 3, 2008, from Lexis Nexis database.

Miller, Jr., G.T. (1994). Environment: Problems and solutions. Belmont, CA:Wadsworth.

Oregon State University (2006, July 7). Major initiative proposed to address amphibian crisis. ScienceDaily. Retrieved May 20, 2008, from

Thursday, June 19, 2008

Chat is bad

Chat is a game, a kind of addiction. If people pay attention to the chat, it makes them waste too much time especially teenagers. In that time, their languages are going to go in the wrong ways, for example cutting down words or changing meanings of words. These affect the teenager’s low ability in their language. “Professor Ben Yagoda has been teaching English for 16 years. Students, he says, are getting brighter. But their abilities to write clearly have deteriorated appreciably in the past four or five years” (Weeks, 2008, para. 35). The trouble from chat has increased in contemporary society. People should be concerned about the problem of chat.

In this paper, I argue that the chat causes the students to have wrong habits of in writing. Also, students waste time because of doing chat. Therefore, too much chatting decreases the quality of our culture.

The choice of words during the chat is what which makes it a wrong habit. The teenagers usually use the reduced form and symbols. For example, “A.S.A.P” can explain “as soon as possible” or some feeling can be explained ^^, -.-. If students use the chat word with public language, the meaning makes others confused, especially older people. “A recent survey by the College Board and Pew Internet and American Life Project found that most students say it’s important to know how to write well, but a majority also said that internet-style language –including abbreviations and emoticons – is making its way into their class work” (Weeks, 2008, para. 37). Also, their conversation is so fast during the chat it makes students lack thinking. For example, students don’t use consideration for their schoolwork of writing. “As more and more teenagers socialize online, middle school and high school teachers like Ms. Harding are increasingly seeing a breezy form of Internet English jump from e-mail into schoolwork” (Lee, 2002, paras.12-14). Therefore, chat habit causes decreasing ability of their language, which didn’t help their studying way.

In addition, most students waste time in order to chat. Students need time for studying; they should learn for their successful goals. For example, most middle schools and high schools require homework and review for lessons. If students pay attention to the chat, probably they will fail in their lessons. Also, long time chat can be related to a bad situation. For example, some sexual criminals try to contact teenagers with chat. This is a very serious problem of society. Therefore, because students don’t use their spare time wisely, teenagers can be exposed to the sexual crime.

In conclusion, chat is spread widely by teenagers. It makes a wrong style of writing and just light composition, so people feel it is difficult to understand the meaning with teenagers. Teenagers “whose social life can rely as much these days on text communication as the spoken word, say that they use instant-messaging shorthand without thinking about it” (Lee, 2002, para12-14). Therefore, the students should use the chat less and try the correct way of language skill in their schoolwork.-


Lee, J. (2002, September). Nu shortcuts in school R 2 much 4 teachers. NY Times. Retrieved June 16, 2008, from

Weeks, L. (2008, June 15). The fate of the sentence: is the writing on the wall? Washington Post. Retrieved June 16, 2008, from